Biography of Barbara Clementine Harris
Bith Date: June 12, 1930
Place of Birth: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Occupations: bishop, activist
In 1989, Barbara Clementine Harris (born 1930) became the first woman bishop in the Worldwide Anglican Communion. Prior to this appointment, Harris was a noted social activist, and her views on social issues continue to inform her actions as a religious leader.
Destined never to take the well-traveled or easy path to success, Barbara Clementine Harris made history in 1989 when she became the first woman bishop in the Worldwide Anglican Communion. Harris, an African American Episcopal pastor, had always chosen to be a leader and not a follower, both within and outside her church. Her elevation to bishop amazed many, as it provided a towering example of how far women had come in their struggle for equality in mainline Protestant churches. Harris's goal was to extend the boundaries of her church, continually pushing for a more progressive message from Episcopalians on issues of civil rights, sexism, and fairness. Harris's history as a social activist before joining the priesthood remained ingrained and served as a guide in all her religious actions.
Harris was born on 12 June 1930 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As a youth Harris attended Saint Barnabas Episcopal Church in Philadelphia and developed a strong relationship with her church and its vision. Harris completed high school and enrolled in college, but did not complete her course work. In 1958 a public relations firm, Joseph Baker Associates, hired Harris, believing that she had great potential to enter this field and succeed. Two years later, Harris married. The relationship was short-lived and she was divorced by 1963. Politically, Harris was greatly affected by her surroundings. As a young African American woman, she felt it her duty to be a part of the civil rights struggle. Her participation in freedom rides, voter registration, and marches with Dr. Martin Luther King in Selma, Alabama, focused Harris's attention on the importance of fighting injustice and inequality. She went on to work as a chief public relations executive at the Sun Oil Company but always held her interests in the Episcopal Church, religion, and in the struggle for justice. Harris's voice increased in the church in 1974 when she lent her support to a group of Episcopal bishops who defied a ban on ordaining women as priests. Harris became so engulfed in the issue of women's rights in the church that she contemplated becoming a priest herself. By October 1980 her dream became a reality as she was ordained. Harris's early assignments varied from serving as chaplain in a Philadelphia County prison and working in small parishes to becoming executive director of the Episcopal Church Publishing Company. While at the publishing company Harris wrote for the liberal Episcopal magazine Witness and began to receive worldwide coverage in the Anglican community.
Harris's ascension as bishop was a major event in the religious world. The Lambeth Conference, the once-a-decade meeting of the international Anglican hierarchy, decided in early August 1988 to allow for the ordination of women as bishops in the church, and this decision set the stage for Harris to be elected. Her election in September 1988 to be the Episcopal bishop for the state of Massachusetts occasioned great celebration as well as turmoil. She defeated many prominent candidates, including other female priests, in order to achieve her status. In response to her victory counter-protests were launched. Several conservative priests revolted, some breaking ties with the church completely, while top Anglican leaders, such as Robert Runcie, the archbishop of Canterbury, refused to acknowledge female bishops in England. Ecumenical ties between the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Church were also strained as the Catholic Church wholeheartedly opposed women entering the priesthood. Harris, for her part, took the controversy in stride and did not let the spotlight detract her from her mission. She had always been outspoken, and she was willing to battle potential challenges to her election as bishop, a stand that won her the admiration of many of her critics.
Once elected and consecrated bishop, Harris continued to advocate for diversity in the Episcopal Church and the entire Anglican community. Her command of a 96,000-member Boston-based diocese made her a powerful force to be reckoned with in deciding church policy and programs. Realizing that with great power came greater responsibility, Harris toned down her rhetoric but did not alter her message. She remains what she always was--an activist critic of the status quo who constantly strives to break new ground.
In 1999, Harris spoke at the Church of the Advocate in Philadelphia on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the ordination of eleven women as Episcopal priests. By then there were approximately 3000 ordained women priests in the U.S., and some 6300 in the 26 provinces of the Anglican Communion. In her speech, Harris lambasted the lack of support for women among male bishops at the previous year's Lambeth conference. "Where are the real men--not the ones who don't eat quiche--the men straight and gay who claim to support us; the men who purport to embrace the concept that in Christ 'there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female?'" she asked. Looking back on 25 years of women in the priesthood, Harris noted that "while women, in numbers, still predominate the church and virtually remain its most potent human resource, men still outvote us, whether they are vocal or silent." She urged a commitment to "press forward with a renewed determination to work toward eradicating the sexism, racism and homophobia which continue to permeate and pervade the church and in turn spawn some of the hate crimes we witness. And that includes demanding more in the way of concrete action on the part of the men who say they support us." Harris faces mandatory retirement at the age of 72 in 2003, a date that may not come soon enough for some of her critics.
- The Life and Times of Barbara Harris (1930-)
- At the time of Harris's birth:
- Herbert Hoover was president of the United States
- Birdseye Frozen Foods sold for first time
- Detroit-Windsor Tunnel opened under Detroit River
- Frank Whittle patented the basic designs for turbojet engine
- Gandhi led Salt March in India
- The times:
- 1940s-1950s: Abstract Expressionism
- Mid1950s-1970s: Pop Art
- 1970s- : Postmodernism Period in art
- 1930-1960: Modernist Period of American literature
- 1960- : Postmodernist Period of American literature
- 1914-1965: Modernist Period of English literature
- 1936-1939: Spanish Civil War
- 1939-1945: World War II
- 1950-1953: Korean War
- 1957-1975: Vietnam War
- Harris's contemporaries:
- Barbara Walters (1931-) American news correspondent
- Gloria Steinem (1934-) American women's rights activist
- Geraldine Ferraro (1935-) American female vice presidential candidate
- Jane Fonda (1937-) American actress
- Selected world events:
- 1939: Television begun under commercial license
- 1945: First atomic bomb exploded
- 1945: United Nations organized at San Francisco
- 1965: Mary Quant's miniskirt first appeared in London
- 1968: Jacuzzi Whirlpool bath was first introduced
- 1965: National Organization for Women (NOW) is formed
- 1969: U.S. astronauts landed on moon
- Barbara Harris. "Sermon Delivered by the Rt. Rev. Barbara C. Harris at the Church of the Advocate, Philadelphia." The Episcopal Diocese Of Massachusetts,July 29, 1999. Available from http://www.diomass.org/HarrisSermon.htm.
- Larry G. Murphy, J. Gordon Melton, and Gary L. Ward, eds., Encyclopedia of African American Religions (New York: Garland, 1993).
- Richard N. Ostling, "The Bishop is a Lady," Time, 132 (26 December 1988): 80.